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The BCERF program on the Cancer Risks of Environmental Chemicals in the Home and Workplace closed on March 31, 2010. No further updates will be made to this web site. Please go Cornell University’s eCommons web site to access BCERF’s archived research and educational materials (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/14300).

Environmental Chemicals and Breast Cancer Risk - Why Is There Concern?
Bibliography

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:


Established risk factors only partially explain breast cancer risk

Brody, J. G., and Rudel, R. A. (2003). Environmental pollutants and breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 111, 1007-1019.

Madigan, M. P., Zielger, R. G., Benichou, J., Byrne, C., and Hoover, R. N. (1995). Proportion of breast cancer cases in the United States explained by well-established risk factors, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87, 1681-1685.

Marshall, L. M., Hunter, D. J., Connolly, J. L., Shnitt, S. J., Byrne, C., London, S. J., and Colditz, G. A. (1997). Risk of breast cancer associated with atypical hyperplasia of lobular and ductal types, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 6, 297-301.

Rockhill, B., Weinberg, C. R., and Newman, B. (1998). Population attributable fraction estimation for established breast cancer risk factors: considering the issues of high prevalence and unmodifiability, American Journal of Epidemiology 147, 826-833.

Geography, migration and rates of breast cancer: Are there environmental links?

Colditz, G. A., and Rosner, B. (2000). Cumulative risk of breast cancer to age 70 years according to risk factor status: Data from the Nurses' Health Study, American Journal of Epidemiology 152, 950.

IARC (1990). Patterns of Cancer in Five Continents, IARC Scientific Publications No. 102 (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer).

Lichtenstein, P., Holm, B. V., Verkasalo, P. K., Iliadou, A., Kaprio, J., Koskenvuo, M., Pukkala, E., Skytthe, A., and Hemminki, K. (2000). Environmental and heritable factors in the causation of cancer: analyses of cohorts of twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland, New England Journal of Medicine 343, 78-85.

Millikan, R., DeVoto, E., Newman, B., and Savitz, D. (1995). Studying environmental influences and breast cancer risk: suggestions for an integrated population-based approach, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 35, 79-89.

Sasco, A. J. (2001). Epidemiology of breast cancer: an environmental disease?, Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavia 109, 321-332.

Shimizu, H., Ross, R. K., Bernstein, L., Yatani, R., Henderson, B. E., and Mack, T. M. (1991). Cancers of the prostate and breast among Japanese and white immigrants in Los Angeles County, British Journal of Cancer 63, 963-966.

Ziegler, R. G., Hoover, R. N., Nomura, A. M. Y., West, D. W., Wu, A. H., Pike, M. C., Lake, A. J., Horn-Ross, P. L., Kolonel, L. N., Siiteri, P. K., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. (1996). Relative weight, weight change, height, and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 88, 650-660.

Chemicals in the workplace

Aronson, K. J., and Howe, G. R. (1994). Utility of a surveillance system to detect associations between work and cancer among women in Canada, 1965-1991, Journal of Occupational Medicine 36, 1174-1179.

Bernstein, L., Allen, M., Hoda, A., Deapen, D., Horn-Ross, P. L., Peel, D., Pinder, R., Reynolds, P., Sullivan-Halley, J., West, D., et al. (2002). High breast cancer incidence rates among California teachers: results from the California Teachers Study (United States). Cancer Causes and Control 13, 625-635.

Blair, A., and Kazerouni, N. (1997). Reactive chemicals and cancer, Cancer Causes and Control 8, 473-490.

Cantor, K. P., Stewart, P. A., Brinton, L. A., and Dosemeci, M. (1995). Occupational exposures and female breast cancer mortality in the United States, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 37, 336-348.

Chiazze, L., and Ference, L. D. (1981). Mortality among PVC-fabricating employees, Environmental Health Perspectives 41, 137-143.

Goldberg, M. S., and Labrèche, F. (1996). Occupational risk factors for female breast cancer: a review, Occupational and Environmental Medicine 53, 145-156.

Habel, L. A., Stanford, J. L., Vaughan, T. L., A., R. M., Voigt, L. F., Weiss, N. S., and Daling, J. R. (1995). Occupation and breast cancer risk in middle-aged women, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 37, 349-356.

Hall, N. E. L., and Rosenman, K. D. (1991). Cancer by industry: analysis of a population-based cancer registry with an emphasis on blue-collar workers, American Journal of Industrial Medicine 19, 145-159.

Hansen, J. (1999). Breast cancer risk among relatively young women employed in solvent-using industries., American Journal of Industrial Medicine 36, 43-47.

Hu, Y. F., Russo, I. H., Zalipsky, U., Lynch, H. T., and Russo, J. (1997). Environmental chemical carcinogens induce transformation of breast epiethlial cells from women with familial history of breast cancer (Letter to the editor), In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology 33, 495-498.

Huff, J., Bucher, J., and Barrett, J. C. (1996). Methylene chloride [letters], Science 272, 1083-1084.

Labrèche, F. (2001). Literature review of associations between breast cancer and occupational exposures (http://www.breast.cancer.ca/ (cited 2/2002), Health Canada, Canadian Breast Cancer Research Initiative).

Labrèche, F. P., and Goldberg, M. S. (1997). Exposure to organic solvents and breast cancer in women: a hypothesis, American Journal of Industrial Medicine 21, 1-14.

Morton, W. E. (1995). Major differences in breast cancer risks among occupations, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 37, 328-335.

Norman, S. A., Berlin, J. A., Soper, K. A., Middendorf, B. F., and Stolley, D. (1995). Cancer incidence in a group of workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide., International Journal of Epidemiology 24, 276-284.

Pollán, M., and Gustavsson, P. (1999). High-risk occupations for breast cancer in the Swedish female working population, American Journal of Public Health 89, 875-881.

Robinson, C. F., and Walker, J. T. (1999). Cancer mortality among women employed in fast-growing U.S. occupations. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 36, 186-192.

Rubin, C. H., Burnett, C. A., Halperin, W. E., and Seligman, P. J. (1993). Occupation as a risk identifier for breast cancer, American Journal of Public Health 83, 1311-1315.

Sankila, R., Karjalainen, S., Läärä, E., Pukkala, E., and Teppo, L. (1990). Cancer risk among health care personnel in Finland, 1971-1980, Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health 16, 252-257.

Shannon, H. S., Haines, T., Bernholz, C., Julian, J. A., Verma, D. K., Jamieson, E., and Walsh, C. (1988). Cancer morbidity in lamp manufacturing workers, American Journal of Industrial Medicine 14, 281-290.

Smulevich, V. B., Fedotova, I. V., and Filatova, V. S. (1988). Increasing evidence of the rise of cancer in workers exposed to vinylchloride, Bristish Journal of Industrial Medicine 45, 93-97.

Spirtas, R., Stewart, P. A., Lee, J. S., Marano, D. E., Forbes, C. D., Grauman, D. J., Pettigrew, H. M., Blair, A., Hoover, R. N., and Cohen, J. L. (1991). Retrospective cohort mortality study of workers at an aircraft maintenance facility. I Epidemiological results, British Journal of Industrial Medicine 48, 515-530.

Steenland, K., Stayner, L., Greife, A., Halerin, W., Hayes, R., Hornung, R., and Nowlin, S. (1991). Mortality among workers exposed to ethylene oxide, New England Journal of Medicine 324, 1402-1407.

USDHHS (2002a). Benzene CAS # 71-43-2. In Report on Carcinogens. Tenth Edition, Carcinogen Profiles 2002, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, and the National Toxicology Program), pp. 26-28.

Walrath, J., Li, F. P., Hoar, S. K., Mead, M. W., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. (1985). Causes of death among female chemists, American Journal of Public Health 75, 883-884.

Ward, E. (1995). Overview of preventable industrial causes of occupational cancer, Environmental Health Perspectives 103(Suppl 8), 197-203.

Ward, E. M., Schulte, P. A., Bayard, S., Blair, A., Brandt-Rauf, P., Butler, M. A., Dankovic, D., Hubbs, A. F., Jones, C., Karstadt, M., et al. (2003). Priorities for development of research methods in occupational cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 111, 1-12.

Wolff, M. S., Collman, G. W., Barrett, J. C., and Huff, J. (1996). Breast cancer and environmental risk factors: Epidemiological and experimental findings [review], Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 36, 573-596.

Zahm, S. H., Pottern, L. M., Lewis, D. R., Ward, M. H., and White, D. W. (1994). Inclusion of women and minorities in occupational cancer epidemiologic research, Journal of Occupational Medicine 36, 842-847.

Light at night and breast cancer risk

Caplan, L. S., Schoenfeld, E. R., O'Leary, E. S., and Leske, M. C. (2000). Breast cancer and electromagnetic fields-a review., Annals of Epidemiology 10, 31-44.

Davis, S., Mirick, D. K., and Stevens, R. G. (2001). Nights shift work, light at night, and risk of breast cancer, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93, 1557-1562.

Hansen, J. (2001). Light at night, shiftwork, and breast cancer risk, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93, 1513-1515.

Schernhammer, E. S., Laden, F., Speizer, F. E., Willet, W. C., Hunter, D. J., Kawachi, I., and Colditz, G. A. (2001). Rotating night shifts and risk of breast cancer in women participating in the Nurses' Health Study., Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93, 1563-1568.

Stevens, R. G., and Rea, M. S. (2001). Light in the built environment: potential role of circadian disruption in endocrine disruption and breast cancer., Cancer Causes and Control 12, 279-287.

Chemicals in the home and breast cancer risk

Demers, P. A., Ayotte, P., Brisson, J., Dodin, S., Roberts, J., and Dewailly, E. (2002). Plasma concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and the risk of breast cancer: A congener-specific analysis, American Journal of Epidemiology 155, 629-635.

Koo, J., Parham, F., Kohn, M. C., Masten, S. A., Brock, J. W., Needham, L. L., and Portier, C. J. (2002). The association between biomarker-based exposure estimates for phthalates and demographic factors in a human reference population, Environment Health Perspectives 110, 405-410.

Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/LIBCSP/)

Medlin, J. (2001). Sister study hopes to answer breast cancer questions, Environmental Health Perspectives 109, A368-A369.

Pimentel, D., Tort, M., D'Anna, L., Krawic, A., Berger, J., Rossman, J., Mugo, F., Doon, N., Shriberg, M., Howard, E., et al. (1998). Ecology of increasing disease: population growth and environmental degradation, BioScience 48, 817-826.

Rudel, R. A., and Brody, J. G. (2001). Identification of selected hormonally active agents and animal mammary carcinogens in commercial and residential air and dust samples, Journal of Air & Waste Management Association 51, 499-513.

Rudel, R. A., Camann, D. E., Spengler, J. D., Korn, L. R., and Brody, J. G. (2003). Phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and other endocrine-disrupting compounds in indoor air and dust. Environmental Science and Technology 37, 4543-4553.

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Pesticide useage in the United States

Aspelin, A. L. and Grube, A. H. (1999) Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage, 1996 and 1997 Market Estimates, no. 733-R-99-001, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Dosemeci, M., Alavanja, M. C. R., Rowland, A. S., Mage, D. T., Zahm, S. H., Rothman, N., Lubin, J. H., Hoppin, J. A., Sandler, D. P., and Blair, A. (2002). A quantitative approach for estimating exposure to pesticides in the Agricultural Health Study. Annals of Occupational Hygiene 46, 245-260.

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Pesticides and breast cancer risk
-Farming and cancer risk

Agricultural Health Study (http://www.aghealth.org/index.html)

Alavanja, M. C. R., Samanic, C., Dosemeci, M., Lubin, J., Tarone, R., Lynch, C. F., Knott, C., Thomas, K. W., Hoppin, J. A., Barker, J., et al. (2003). Use of agricultural pesticides and prostate cancer risk in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology 157, 800-814.

Blair, A., and Hoar Zahm, S. (1991). Cancer among farmers, Occupational Medicine 6, 335-354.

Blair, A., and Zahm, S. H. (1995). Agricultural exposures and cancer, Environmental Health Perspectives 103(Suppl 8), 205-208.

Blair, A., Zahm, S. H., Pearce, N. E., Heineman, E. F., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. (1992). Clues to cancer etiology from studies of farmers., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 18, 209-215.

Bohigian, G. M., Estes Jr., E. H., Friedlander, I. R., Kennedy, W. R., Moxley III, J. H., Numann, P. J., Salve, P. S., Scott, W. C., Skom, J. H., Steinhilber, R. M., et al. (1988). Cancer risk of pesticides in agricultural workers, Journal of American Medical Association 260, 959-966.

Duell, E. J., Millikan, R. C., Savitz, D. A., Newman, B., Smith, J. C., Schell, M. J., and Sandler, D. P. (2000). A population-based case-control study of farming and breast cancer in North Carolina, Epidemiology 11, 523-531.

Duell, E. J., Millikan, R. C., Savitz, D. A., Schell, M. J., Newman, B., Tse, C.-K. J., and Sandler, D. P. (2001). Reproducibility of reported farming activities and pesticide use among breast cancer cases and controls: A comparison of two modes of data collection, Annals of Epidemiology 11, 178-185.

Zahm, S., Ward, M., and Blair, A. (1997). Pesticides and cancer, Occupational Medicine 12, 269-289.

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Pesticides and breast cancer risk
-Organochlorine pesticides and breast cancer risk

See BCEF Bibliography on: Chlordane and Breast Cancer Risk http://envirocancer.cornell.edu/Bibliography/Pesticide/bib.chlordane.cfm

See BCEF Bibliography on: DDT, DDE and Breast Cancer Risk http://envirocancer.cornell.edu/Bibliography/Pesticide/bib.ddt.cfm

See BCEF Bibliography on: Dieldrin and Breast Cancer Risk http://envirocancer.cornell.edu/Bibliography/Pesticide/bib.dieldrin.cfm

See BCEF Bibliography on: Heptachlor and Breast Cancer Risk http://envirocancer.cornell.edu/Bibliography/Pesticide/bib.heptachlor.cfm

See BCEF Bibliography on: Lindane and Breast Cancer Risk http://envirocancer.cornell.edu/Bibliography/Pesticide/bib.lindane.cfm

Gammon, M. D., Wolff, M. S., Neugut, A. I., Eng, S. M., Teitelbaum, S. L., Britton, J. A., Terry, M. B., Levin, B., Stellman, S. D., Kabat, G. C., et al. (2002). Environmental toxins and breast cancer on Long Island. II. Organochlorine compound levels in blood. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 11, 686-697.

Laden, F., Collman, G., Iwamoto, K., Alberg, A. J., Berkowitz, G. S., Freudenheim, J. L., Hankinson, S. E., Kelzlsouer, K. J., Holford, T. R., Huang, H.-Y., et al. (2001). 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene and polychlorinated biphenyls and breast cancer: combined analysis of five U.S. states. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93, 768-776.

Lopez-Cervantes, M., Torres-Sanchez, L., Tobias, A. and Lopez-Carrillo, L. (2004) Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane burden and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis of the epidemiologic evidence, Environmental Health Perspectives, 112, 207-214.

Snedeker, S. M. (2001). Pesticides and breast cancer risk: A review of DDT, DDE and Dieldrin, Environmental Health Perspectives 109, 35-47.

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Chemicals that cause mammary (breast tumors) in laboratory animals

Bennett, L. M., and Davis, B. J. (2002). Identification of mammary carcinogens in rodent bioassays, Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 39, 150-157.

Davis, B. (2001). Chemically induced mammary gland cancers in rodent animal models (abstract no. 1860), Toxicologist 60, 391.

DeBruin, L. S., and Josephy, P. D. (2002). Perspectives on the chemical etiology of breast cancer, Environmental Health Perspectives 110, 119-128.

Dunnick, J. K., Elwell, M. R., Huff, J., and Barrett, J. C. (1995). Chemically induced mammary gland cancer in the National Toxicology Program's carcinogenesis bioassay, Carcinogenesis 16, 173-179.

Elcombe, C. R., Odum, J., Foster, J. R., Stone, S., Hasmall, S., Soames, A. R., Kimber, I., and Ashby, J. (2002). Prediction of rodent nongenotoxic carcinogenesis: evaluation of biochemical and tissue changes in rodents following exposure to nine nongenotoxic NTP carcinogens, Environment Health Perspectives 110, 363-375.

Fung, V. A., Barrett, J. C., and Huff, J. (1995). The carcinogenesis bioassay in perspective: application in identifying human cancer hazards. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 680-683.

Hansen, J. (2000). Elevated risk for male breast cancer after occupational exposure to gasoline and vehicular combustion products, American Journal of Industrial Medicine 37, 349-352.

Hecht, S. S. (2002). Tobacco smoke carcinogens and breast cancer, Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 39, 119-126.

Hein, D. W. (2000). N-Acetyltransferase genetics and their role in predisposition to aromatic and heterocyclic amine-induced carcinogenesis., Toxicology Letters 112-113, 349-356.

Komulainen, H., Kosma, V.-M., Vaittinen, S.-L., Vartiainen, T., Kaliste-Korhonen, E., Lötjönen, S., Tuominen, R. K., and Tuomisto, J. (1997). Carcinogenicity of the drinking water mutagen 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone in the rat, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89, 848-856.

Melnick, R., and Sills, R. C. (2001). Comparative carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, and chloroprene in rats and mice, Chemico-Biological Interactions 135-136, 27-42.

National Toxicology Program, Chemicals associated with tumor induction in the mammary gland in laboratory animals (http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/Sites/MAMM.html)

Polyak, K. (2001). On the birth of breast cancer, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1552, 1-13.

Tennant, R. W., Stasiewicz, S., Mennear, J., French, J. E., and Spalding, J. W. (1999). Genetically altered mouse models for identifying carcinogens. In IARC Scientific Publications: The Use of Short- and Medium-term Tests for Carcinogens and Data on Genetic Effects in Carcinogenic Hazard Evaluation, D. B. McGregor, J. M. Rice, and S. Venitt, eds. (Lyon, International Agency for the Research on Cancer), pp. 123-150.

USDHHS (2000). Report on Carcinogens, Ninth Edition; Carcinogen Profiles 2000 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service and National Toxicology Program).

USDHHS (2002a). Benzene CAS # 71-43-2. In Report on Carcinogens. Tenth Edition, Carcinogen Profiles 2002, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, and the National Toxicology Program), pp. 26-28.

USDHHS (2002b). Report on Carcinogens, Tenth Edition; Carcinogen Profiles 2002, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service and The National Toxicology Program.

Wiseman, H., Cochran, C., Dietrich, W., Lander, E. S., and Soderkvist, P. (1994). Allelotyping of butadiene-induced lung and mammary adencarcinomas of B6C3F1 mice: Frequent losses of heterozygosity in regions homologous to human tumor-suppressor genes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 91, 3759-3763.

Wright, J. M., Schwartz, J., Vartiainen, T., Mäki-Paakkanen, J., Altschul, L., Harrington, J. J., and Dockerty, D. W. (2002). 3-chloro-4-(dichlromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity in Massachusetts drinking water, Environmental Health Perspectives 110, 157-164.

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Chemicals linked to breast tumors in laboratory animals
-Breast cancer risk of ethylene oxide

Norman, S. A., Berlin, J. A., Soper, K. A., Middendorf, B. F., and Stolley, D. (1995). Cancer incidence in a group of workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide., International Journal of Epidemiology 24, 276-284.

Sankila, R., Karjalainen, S., Läärä, E., Pukkala, E., and Teppo, L. (1990). Cancer risk among health care personnel in Finland, 1971-1980, Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health 16, 252-257.

Steenland, K., Stayner, L., Greife, A., Halerin, W., Hayes, R., Hornung, R., and Nowlin, S. (1991). Mortality among workers exposed to ethylene oxide, New England Journal of Medicine 324, 1402-1407.

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Chemicals linked to breast tumors in laboratory animals
-Breast cancer risk of reserpine

(1974). Reserpine and breast cancer., The Lancet 2, 669-671.

Bucher, J. R. (1998). Update on National Toxicology Program (NTP) assays with gentically altered or "transgenic" mice, Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 619-621.

BUMC (1974). Rauwolfia and breast cancer. (report from the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program, Boston University Medical Center), British Medical Journal 4, 121-122.

Curb, J. D., Hardy, R. J., Labarthe, D. R., Borhani, N. O., and Taylor, J. O. (1982). Reserpine and breast cancer in the hypertension detection and follow-up program., Hypertension 4, 307-311.

Danielson, D. A., Jick, H., Hunter, J. R., Steragachis, A., and Madsen, S. (1982). Nonestrogenic drugs and breast cancer., American Journal of Epidemiology 116, 329-332.

Heinonen, O. P., Shapiro, S., Tuominen, L., and Turunen, M. I. (1974). Reserpine use in relation to breast cancer., The Lancet 2, 675-677.

Homburger, F., Van Dongen, C. G., Adams, R. A., Soto, E. a., and Pai, K. J. (1978). An experimental approach to the breast cancer, reserpine problem., Cancer Letters 4, 177-183.

Horwitz, R. I., and Feinstein, A. R. (1985). Exclusion bias and the false relationship of reserpine and breast cancer., Archives of Internal Medicine 145, 1873-1875.

Immich, H. (1974). Rauwolfia derivatives and cancer, The Lancet 2, 774-775.

Jick, H. (1975). Reserpine and breast cancer: A perspective., Journal of American Medical Association 233, 896-897.

Jick, H. (1976). Berkson fallacy and studies on reserpine and breast cancer., American Journal of Diseases of Children 130, 1164.

Kewitz, H., Jesdinsky, H. J., Kreutz, G., and Schulz, R. (1980). Reserpine and breast cancer., Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de therapie Supplement, 22-24.

Kewitz, H., Jesdinsky, H. J., Schroter, P.-M., and Lindtner, E. (1977). Reserpine and breast cancer in women in Germany., European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 11, 79-83.

Labarthe, D. R. (1979). Methodologic variation in case-control studies of reserpine and breast cancer., Journal of Chronic Diseases 32, 95-104.

Laska, E. M., Meisner, M., Siegel, C., Fischer, S., and Wanderling, J. (1975). Matched-pairs study of reserpine use and breast cancer., The Lancet 2, 296-300.

Lee, P. A., Kelly, M. R., and Wallin, J. D. (1976). Increased prolactin levels during reserpine treatment of hypertensive patients., Journal of American Medical Association 235, 2316-2317.

Mack, T. M., Henderson, B. E., Gerkins, V. R., Arthur, M., Baptista, J., and Pike, M. C. (1975). Reserpine and breast cancer in a retirement community, New England Journal of Medicine 292, 1366-1371.

Mortensen, P. B. (1989). The incidence of cancer in schizophrenic patients., Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 43, 43-47.

Ross, R. K., Paganini-Hill, A., Krailo, M. D., Gerkins, V. R., Henderson, B. E., and Pike, M. C. (1984). Effects of reserpine on prolactin levels and incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women., Cancer Research 44, 3106-3108.

Schyve, P. M., Smithline, F., and Meltzer, H. Y. (1978). Neuroleptic-induced prolactin level elevation and breast cancer., Archives of General Psychiatry 35, 1291-1301.

Skutsch, G. M. (1974). Reserpine, prolactin, allergy, and breast cancer, The Lancet 2, 967.

Tennant, R. W., Rao, G. N., Russfield, A., Seilkop, S., and Braun, A. G. (1993). Chemical effects in transgenic mice bearing oncogenes expressed in mammary tissue., Carcinogenesis 14, 29-35.

USDHHS (2000). Report on Carcinogens, Ninth Edition; Carcinogen Profiles 2000 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service and National Toxicology Program).

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Chemicals linked to breast tumors in laboratory animals
-Breast cancer risk of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons

See BCEF Bibliography on: Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Breast Cancer Risk http://envirocancer.cornell.edu/Bibliography/General/bib.PAH.cfm

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Hormones, growth factors and breast cancer risk

Beckman, M. W., Niederacher, D., Schnurch, H., Gusterson, B. A., and Bender, H. (1997). Multistep carcinogenesis of breast cancer and tumour heterogeneity, Journal of Molecular Medicine 75, 429-439.

Clevenger, C. V., Furth, P. A., Hankinson, S. E., and Schuler, L. A. (2003). The role of prolactin in mammary carcinoma. Endocrine Reviews 24, 1-27.

Henderson, B. E., and Feigelson, H. S. (2000). Hormonal carcinogenesis., Carcinogenesis 21, 427-433.

Kleinberg, D. L. (1998). Role of IGF-I in normal mammary gland development, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 47, 201-208.

Nandi, S., Guzman, R. C., and Yang, J. (1995). Hormones and mammary carcinogenesis in mice, rats, and humans: A unifying hypothesis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92, 3650-3657.

Normanno, N., and Ciardiello, F. (1997). EGF-related peptides in the pathophysiology of the mammary gland, Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 2, 143-151.

Pollak, M. (2000). Insulin-like growth factor physiology and cancer risk, European Journal of Cancer 36, 1224-1228.

Rosen, C. J. (1999). Serum insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins: clinical implications, Clinical Chemistry 45, 1384-1290.

Russo, J., and Russo, I. H. (2001). The pathway of neoplastic transformation of human breast epithelial cells, Radiation Research 155, 151-154.

Russo, J., Yang, X., and Russo, I. H. (2000). Developmental, cellular, and molecular basis of human breast cancer, Journal of the National Cancer Institute Mongraphs 27, 17-37.

Schroeder, J. A., and Lee, D. C. (1997). Transgenic mice reveal roles for TGFa and EGF receptor in mammary gland development and neoplasia, Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 2, 119-129.

Silberstein, G. B. (2001). Postnatal mammary gland morphogenesis, Microscopy Research and Technique 52, 155-162.

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Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and breast cancer risk
- General

Aschengrau, A., Coogan, P. F., Quinn, M. M., and Cashins, L. J. (1998). Occupational exposure to estrogenic chemicals and the occurrence of breast cancer: An exploratory analysis, American Journal of Industrial Medicine 34, 6-14.

Birnbaum, L. S., and Fenton, S. E. (2003). Cancer and developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors. Environmental Health Perspectives 111, 389-394. Brody, J. G., and Rudel, R. A. (2003). Environmental pollutants and breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 111, 1007-1019.

Carpenter, D. O., Arcaro, K., and Spink, D. C. (2002). Understanding the human health effects of chemical mixtures, Environmental Health Perspectives 110(Suppl 1), 25-42.

Cavalieri, E. L., Stack, D. E., Devanesan, P. D., Todorovic, R., Dwivedy, I., Higginbotham, S., Johansson, S. L., Patil, K. D., Gross, M. L., Gooden, J. K., et al. (1997). Molecular origin of cancer: Catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones as endogenous tumor initiators., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94, 10937-10942.

Crisp, T. M., Clegg, E. D., Cooper, R. L., Wood, W. P., Anderson, D. G., Baetcke, K. P., Hoffmann, J. L., Morrow, M., Rodier, D. J., Scaeffer, J. E., et al. (1998). Environmental endocrine disruption: An effects assessment and analysis, Environmental Health Perspectives 106(Suppl 1), 11-56.

Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (http://www.epa.gov/scipoly/oscpendo/)

McLachlan, J. A. (2001). Environmental signaling: what embryos and evolution teach us about endocrine disrupting chemicals, Endocrine Reviews 22, 319-341.

Melnick, R., Lucier, G., Wolfe, M., Hall, R., Stancel, G., Prins, G., Gallo, M., Reuhl, K., Ho, S., Brown, T., et al. (2002). Summary of the National Toxicology Program's report of the endocrine disruptors low-dose peer review, Environment Health Perspectives 110, 427-431.

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and breast cancer risk
- Diethylstilbesterol

Calle, E., Mervis, C. A., Thun, M. J., Rodriguez, C., Wingo, P. A., and Heath, C. W., Jr. (1996). Diethylstilbestrol and risk of fatal breast cancer in a prospective cohort of US women, American Journal of Epidemiology 144, 645-652.

Colton, T., Greenberg, E. R., Noller, K., Resseguie, L., Van Bennekom, C., Heeren, T., and Zhang, Y. (1993). Breast cancer in mothers prescribed diethylstilbestrol in pregnancy: Further follow-up, Journal of the American Medical Association 269, 2096-2100.

Greenberg, E. R., Barnes, A. B., Resseguie, L., Barrett, J. A., Burnside, S., Lanza, L. L., Neff, R. K., Stevens, M., Young, R. H., and Colton, T. (1984). Breast cancer in mothers given diethylstilbestrol in pregnancy, New England Journal of Medicine 311, 1393-1398.

Huckell, C., Laskin, J., and Gelmon, K. (1996). Premenopausal breast cancer after in-utero exposure to stilboestrol, Lancet 348, 331.

IARC (1987). Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC Monographs volumes 1 to 42; Diethystilboestrol (Group 1). In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization), pp. 273.

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and breast cancer risk
- Hormone replacement therapy

Colditz, G. A., and Rosner, B. (2000). Cumulative risk of breast cancer to age 70 years according to risk factor status: Data from the Nurses' Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 152, 950.

Porch, J. V., Lee, I., Cook, N. R., Rexrode, K. M., and Buring, J. E. (2002). Estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and breast cancer risk: the Women's Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes and Control 13, 847-854.

Schairer, C., Lubin, J., Troisi, R., Sturgeion, S., Brinton, L., and Hoover, R. (2000). Menopausal estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and breast cancer risk. Journal of the American Medical Association 283, 485-491.

WHI (2002). Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in health postmenopausal women; principle results from the women's health initiative randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 288, 321-333.

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Examples of emerging endocrine-disrupting chemicals
- Flame Retardants

Mazdai, A., Dodder, N. G., Abernathy, M. P., Hites, R. A., and Bigsby, R. M. (2003). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maternal and fetal blood samples. Environmental Health Perspectives 111, 1249-1251.

Meerts, I. A. T. M., Letcher, R. J., Hoving, S., Marsh, G., Bergman, A., Lemmen, J. G., van der Burg, B., and Brouwer, A. (2001). In vitro estrogenicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hydroxylated PBDEs, and polybrominated bisphenol A compounds. Environmental Health Perspectives 109, 399-407.

Samuelson, M., Olsen, C., Holme, J. A., Meussen-Elholm, E., Bergmann, A., and Hongsol, J. K. (2001). Estrogen-like properties of brominated analogs of bisphenol A in the mCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Cell Biology and Toxicology 17, 139-151.

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Examples of emerging endocrine-disrupting chemicals
- Plasticizers

Diel, P., Laundenback, U., Smolnikar, K., Schultz, T., and Michna, H. (2001). Bisphenol A: Morphological and molecular uterine and mammary gland reactions in different strains of the rat (Wistar, Sprague-Dawley, Da/HAN) (abstract no. 1409), Toxicologist 60, 296.

Markey, C. M., Luque, E. H., Munoz de Toro, M., Sonnenschein, C., and Soto, A. M. (2001). In utero exposure to bisphenol A alters the development and tissue organization of the mouse mammary gland, Biology of Reproduction 65, 1215-1223.

Soto, A. M., Justicia, H., Wray, J. W., and Sonnenschein, C. (1991). p-nonyl-phenol: An estrogenic xenobiotic released from "modified" polystyrene. Environmental Health Perspectives 92, 167-173.

Tyl, R., Myer, C., Marr, M., Chang, T., Seely, J., Brine, D., Veselica, M., Fail, P., Joiner, R., Butala, J., et al. (2001). Three-generation reproductive toxicity study of bisphenol A (BPA) administered in the diet to CD® (Sprague Dawley) rats (abstract no. 1410A), Toxicologist 60, 297.

White, R., Jobling, S., Hoare, S. A., Sumpter, J. P., and Parker, M. G. (1994). Environmentally persistent alkylphenolic compounds are estrogenic. Endocrinology 135, 175-182

Examples of emerging endocrine-disrupting chemicals
- Heavy metals

Garcia-Morales, P., Saceda, M., Kenney, N., Kim, N., Salomon, D. S., Gottardis, M. M., Solomon, H. B., Sholler, P. F., Jordan, V. C., and Martin, M. B. (1994). Effect of cadmium on estrogen receptor levels and estrogen-induced responses in human breast cancer cells. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 269, 16896-16901.

Johnson, M. D., Kenney, N., Stoica, A., Hilakivi-Clarke, L., Singh, B., Chepko, G., Clarke, R., Sholler, P. F., Lirio, A. A., Foss, C., et al. (2003). Cadmium mimics the in vivo effects of estrogen in the uterus and mammary gland. Nature Medicine, 1-4.

Stoica, A., Katzenellenbogen, B. S., and Martin, M. B. (2000a). Activation of estrogen receptor- by the heavy metal cadmium. Molecular Endocrinology 14, 545-553.

Stoica, A., Pentecost, E., and Martin, M. B. (2000b). Effects of arsenite on estrogen receptor-alpha expression and activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Endocrinology 141, 3595-3602.

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Early life events, chemical exposures and breast cancer risk
-General

See BCERF Bibliography on: Childhood Life Events and the Risk of Breast Cancer http://envirocancer.cornell.edu/Bibliography/Diet/bib.child.cfm

Birnbaum, L. S., and Fenton, S. E. (2003). Cancer and developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors. Environmental Health Perspectives 111, 389-394.

Medina, D., and Smith, G. H. (1999). Chemical carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in parous, involuted mouse mammary glands, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 91, 967-969.

Nandi, S., Guzman, R. C., and Yang, J. (1995). Hormones and mammary carcinogenesis in mice, rats, and humans: A unifying hypothesis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92, 3650-3657.

Rajkumar, L., Guzman, R. C., Yang, J., Thordarson, G., Talamantes, F., and Nandi, S. (2001). Short-term exposure to pregnancy levels of estrogen prevents mammary carcinogenesis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98, 11755-11759.

Russo, I. H., and Russo, J. (1996). Mammary gland neoplasia in long-term rodent studies, Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 938-967.

Russo, J., and Russo, I. H. (1999). Cellular basis of breast cancer susceptibility, Oncology Research 11, 169-178.

Silberstein, G. B. (2001). Postnatal mammary gland morphogenesis, Microscopy Research and Technique 52, 155-162.

Sivaraman, L., Stephens, L. C., Markaverich, B. M., Clark, J. A., Krnacik, S., Conneely, O. M., O'Malley, B. W., and Medina, D. (1998). Hormone-induced refractoriness to mammary carcinogenesis in Wistar-Furth rats, Carcinogenesis 19, 1573-1581.

Stoll, B. A. (1998). Western diet, early puberty, and breast cancer risk, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 49, 187-193.

Thordarson, G., Jin, E., Guzman, R. C., Swanson, S. M., Nandi, S., and Talamantes, F. (1995). Refractoriness to mammary tumorigenesis in parous rats: is it caused by persistent changes in the hormonal environment or permanent biochemical alterations in the mammary epithelia?, Carcinogenesis 16, 2847-2853.

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Early life events, chemical exposures and breast cancer risk
-Dioxins

Brake, P. B., Zhang, L., and Jefcoate, C. R. (1998). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor regulation of cytochrome P4501B1 in rat mammary fibroblasts: evidence for transcriptional repression by glucocordicoids, Molecular Pharmacology 54, 825-833.

Brown, N. M., and Lamartiniere, C. A. (1995). Xenoestrogens alter mammary gland differentiation and cell proliferation in the rat, Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 708-713.

Brown, N. M., Manzolillo, P. A., Zhang, J. X., Wang, j., and Lamartiniere, C. A. (1998). Prenatal TCDD and predispostion to mammary cancer in the rat, Carcinogenesis 19, 1623-1629.

Brown, N. M., Manzolillo, P. M., Zhang, J. X., and Lamartiniere, C. A. (1997). Timing of exposure: mammary gland differentation and cell proliferation in rats exposed gestationally and neonatally to TCDD, abstract no. 669, Toxicologist 36, 131.

Davis, J. W., II, Melendez, K., Salas, V. M., Lauer, F. T., and Burchiel, S. W. (2000). 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) inhibits growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis in the human mammary epithelial cell line, MCF-10A, Carcinogenesis 21, 881-886.

Desaulniers, D., Leingartner, K., Russo, J., Perkins, G., Chittim, B. G., Archer, M. C., Wade, M., and Yang, J. (2001). Modulatory effects of neonatal exposure to TCDD, or a mixture of PCBs, p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE, on methylnitrosourea-induced mammary tumor development in the rat, Environmental Health Perspectives 109, 739-747.

Eltom, S. E., M.C., L., and Colin, R. J. (1998). Expression of CYP1B1 but not CYP1A1 by primary cultured human mammary stromal fibroblasts constitutively and in response to dioxin exposure: Role of hte Ah receptor, Carcinogenesis 19, 1437-1444.

Fenton, S. E., and Davis, C. C. (2002). Atrazine exposure in utero increases dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumor incidence in Long Evans offspring, Toxicological Sciences 66, 185.

Fenton, S. E., Hamm, J. T., Birnbaum, L. S., and Youngblood, G. L. (2002). Pesistent abnormalities in the rat mammary gland following gestational and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), Toxicological Sciences 67, 63-74.

Hojo, R., Stern, S., Zareba, G., Markowski, V. P., Cox, C., Kost, J. T., and Weiss, B. (2002). Sexually dimorphic behavioral responses to prenatal dioxin exposure, Environment Health Perspectives 110, 247-254.

Holcomb, M., and Safe, S. (1994). Inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced rat mammary tumor growth by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin., Cancer Letters 82, 43-47.

Kiviranta, H., Vartiainen, T., and Tuomisto, J. (2002). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in fishermen in Finland, Environment Health Perspectives 110, 355-361.

Kociba, R. J., Keyes, D. G., Beyer, J. E., Carreon, R. M., Wade, C. E., Dittenber, D. A., Kalinins, L. E., Frauson, L. E., Park, C. N., Barnard, S. D., et al. (1978). Results of a two-year chronic toxicity and oncogenicity study of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats., Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 46, 279-303.

Lewis, B. C., Hudgins, S., Lewis, A., Schoor, K., Sommer, R., Peterson, R. E., Flaws, J. A., and Furth, P. A. (2001). In utero and lactational treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin impairs mammary gland differentiatin but does not block the response to exogenous estrogen in the postpubertal female rat, Toxicological Sciences 62, 46-53.

Safe, S. (1995). Modulation of gene expression and endocrine response pathways by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorobenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds, Pharmacology and Therapeutics 67, 247-281.

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Early life events, chemical exposures and breast cancer risk
-Atrazine

Fenton, S. E. (2001). Environmental toxicants and altered mammary gland development: the window of susceptibility (abstract no. 1861), Toxicologist 60, 391.

Fenton, S. E., and Davis, C. C. (2002). Atrazine exposure in utero increases dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumor incidence in Long Evans offspring, Toxicological Sciences 66, 185.

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Early life events, chemical exposures and breast cancer risk
-DDT

Gladen, B. C., Ragan, N. B., and Rogan, W. J. (2000). Pubertal growth and development and prenatal and lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene, Journal of Pediatrics 136, 490-496.

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Early life events, chemical exposures and breast cancer risk
-Bisphenol

Diel, P., Laundenback, U., Smolnikar, K., Schultz, T., and Michna, H. (2001). Bisphenol A: Morphological and molecular uterine and mammary gland reactions in different strains of the rat (Wistar, Sprague-Dawley, Da/HAN) ( abstract no. 1409), Toxicologist 60, 296.

Markey, C. M., Luque, E. H., Munoz de Toro, M., Sonnenschein, C., and Soto, A. M. (2001). In utero exposure to bisphenol A alters the development and tissue organization of the mouse mammary gland, Biology of Reproduction 65, 1215-1223.

Tyl, R., Myer, C., Marr, M., Chang, T., Seely, J., Brine, D., Veselica, M., Fail, P., Joiner, R., Butala, J., et al. (2001). Three-generation reproductive toxcity study of bisphenol A (BPA) administered in the diet to CD® (Sprague Dawley) rats (abstract no. 1410A), Toxicologist 60, 297.

Genes and responses to environmental chemicals

Aizadeh, A. A., Ross, D. T., Perou, C. M., and van de Rijm, M. (2001). Towards a novel classification of human malignancies based on gene expression patterns, Journal of Pathology 195, 41-52.

Ambrosone, C. (2001). Molecular epidemiology to elucidate carcinogenesis in the human breast (abstract no. 1859), Toxicologist 60, 391.

Curran, J. E., Weinstein, S. R., and Griffiths, L. R. (2000). Polymorphisms of gluthathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1) and breast cancer susceptibility., Cancer Letters 153, 113-120.

Duell, E. J., Millikan, R. C., Pittman, G. S., Winkel, S., Lunn, R. M., Tse, C.-K. J., Eaton, A., Mohrenweiser, H. W., Newman, B., and Bell, D. A. (2001). Polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene XRCC1 and breast cancer, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 10, 217-222.

Dunning, A. M., Healey, C. S., Pharoah, P. D. P., Teare, M. D., Ponder, B. A. J., and Easton, D. F. (1999). A systematic review of genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk., Cancer Epideimiology biomarkers and prevention 8, 843-854.

Feigelson, H. S., McKean-Cowdin, R., Coetzee, G. A., Stram, D. O., Kolonel, L. N., and Henderson, B. E. (2001). Building a multigenic model fo breast cancer susceptibility: CYP17 and HSD17B1 are two important candidates, Cancer Research 61, 785-789.

Goth-Goldstein, R., Stampfer, M. R., Erdmann, C. A., and Russell, M. (2000). Interindividual variation in CYP1A1 expression in breast tissue and the role of genetic polymorphism., Carcinogenesis 21, 2119-2122.

Hanna, I. H., Dawling, S., Roodi, N., Guengerich, F. P., and Parl, F. F. (2000). Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) pharmacogenetics: association of polymorphisms with functional differences in estrogen hydroxylation activity., Cancer Research 60, 3440-3444.

Huang, C. S., Shen, C. Y., K.J., C., Hsu, S. M., and Chern, H. D. (1999). Cytochrome P4501A1 polymorphism as a susceptibility factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal Chinese women in Taiwan., British Journal of Cancer 80, 1838-1843.

Matsui, A., Ikeda, T., Enomoto, K., Nakashima, H., Omae, K., Watanabe, M., Hibi, T., and Kitajima, M. (2000). Progression of human breast cancer to the metastatic state is linked to genotypes of catechol-o-methyltransferase., Cancer Letters 150, 23-31.

Moysich, K. B., Shields, P. G., Freudenheim, J. L., Schisterman, E. F., J.E., V., Kostyniak, P., Greizerstein, H., Marshall, J. R., Graham, S., and Ambrosone, C. B. (1999). Polychlorinated biphenyls, cytochrome P4501A1 polymorphism, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 8, 41-44.

Park, S. K., Yoo, K. Y., Lee, S. J., Kim, S. U., Ahn, S. H., Noh, D. Y., Choe, K. J., Strickland, A. H., and Kang, D. (2000). Alcohol consumption, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk., Pharmacogenetics 10, 301-309.

Perera, F. P. (1997). Environment and cancer: Who are susceptible?, Science 278, 1068-1073.

Polyak, K. (2001). On the birth of breast cancer, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1552, 1-13.

Shipp, M. A., Ross, K. N., Tamayo, P., Weng, A. P., Kutok, J. L., Aguiar, R. C. T., Gaasenbeek, M., Angelo, M., Reich, M., Pinkus, G. S., et al. (2002). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma outcome prediction by gene-expression profiling and supervised machine learning, Nature Medicine 8, 68-74.

Tennant, R. W., Stasiewicz, S., Mennear, J., French, J. E., and Spalding, J. W. (1999). Genetically altered mouse models for identifying carcinogens. In IARC Scientific Publications: The Use of Short- and Medium-term Tests for Carcinogens and Data on Genetic Effects in Carcinogenic Hazard Evaluation, D. B. McGregor, J. M. Rice, and S. Venitt, eds. (Lyon, International Agency for the Research on Cancer), pp. 123-150.

Thompson, P. A., Shields, P. G., Freudenheim, J. L., Stone, A., Vena, J. E., Marshall, J. R., Graham, S., Laughlin, R., Nemoto, T., Kadlubar, F. F., and Ambrosone, C. B. (1998). Genetic polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase, menopausal status, and breast cancer risk., Cancer Research 58, 2107-2110.

van't Veer, L. J., Dai, H., van de Vijver, M. J., He, Y. D., Hart, A. A. M., Mao, M., Peterse, H. L., van der Kooy, K., Marton, M. J., Witteveen, A. T., et al. (2002). Gene expression profiling predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer, Nature 41, 530-536.

Widersten, M., Pearson, W. R., Engström, Å., and Mannervik, B. (1991). Heterologous expression of the allelic variant Mu-class glutathione transferases m and y, Biochemical Journal 276, 519-524.

Zheng, W., Xie, D. W., Jin, F., Cheng, J. R., Dai, Q., Wen, W. Q., Shu, X. O., and Gao, Y. T. (2000). Genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450-1B1 and risk of breast cancer., Cancer Epideimiology biomarkers and prevention 9, 147-150.

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Prepared by Suzanne M. Snedeker, BCERF.

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: breastcancer@cornell.edu